Day 3 :
- Young Researchers Forum
Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Germany
Food Development Centre, Canada
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Time : 10:05-10:20
Charmaine Koo received her PhD in Food Science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2016. Her PhD research focused on developing low cost biosensing platforms (i.e. lateral flow assays, paper-fluidics, etc.) for point of care diagnostics in food, agriculture and healthcare. She then started her postdoctoral research associate position with Professor D. Julian McClements in March 2016. Currently, her focus is to develop stable proteins and natural coloring for beverage application using biopolymer and colloidal approaches. Her other research interests are to encapsulate and stabilize bacteriophages with food-grade materials in delivery systems for phage therapy in livestock.
Statement of the Problem: There is an increasing demand in the consumption of protein beverages from consumers involved in sports and physique building activities, thus increasing the need for stabilizing proteins during processing and post-processing. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The functional attributes of globular proteins, such as whey protein isolate (WPI), can be extended by controlling the nature of the aggregates they form. In this study, the effect of thermal treatment (85°C/20 min) and high pressure microfluidization (20,000 psi, 1 pass) on the physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (5 to 9%; pH 2) was investigated. Findings: Heating solutions of native WPI under these acidic conditions led to the formation of highly viscous transparent solutions, which was attributed to the formation of protein fibrils (effective d = 310 nm). Microfluidization of these protein fibrils decreased their length (effective d = 97 nm) leading to a substantial reduction in solution viscosity. The impact of solution pH (2 to 7) on the appearance and rheology of native, heated, and heated-microfluidized WPI solutions was then examined. For all systems, highly turbid solutions were formed at pH values close to the isoelectric point of the whey proteins (pH 4.5) due to protein self-association caused by reduction of the electrostatic repulsion between the protein molecules. Highly viscous or gelled solutions were formed for the heated and heated-microfluidized proteins across a wide pH range, which was attributed to the presence of fibrils. Conclusion & Significance: The study showed that the functional attributes of whey proteins can be modulated by thermal and high-pressure homogenization treatment, which could be used for the optimization of protein beverages.
RMIT University, Australia
Time : 10:20-10:35
Sana Subzwari is currently a final year Ph.D. student at RMIT University in Melbourne. Her research work involves Sorghum as an alternative source of starch: characterisation and properties for food applications. In 2011, she completed her Masters in Biotechnology from Deakin University. Subsequently, she worked with Mentholatum Australasia, and was involved in several R&D projects on formulation of topical heating rubs. In addition she has demonstrated her passion for teaching by mentoring undergraduates and postgraduate students
Statement of the Problem: The awareness of coeliac disease and other sensitivities to gluten has caused increased demand for wheat-free food products around the world. As an alternative for the production of novel starches, recently there has been growing interest in sorghum as a potential source. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Starch granules were suspended in water to form a slurry using gentle stirring. Analyses were performed on a Bruker Microcalix instrument using 50 W Cu Ka radiation at a wavelength of 1.54 Å. Measurements were carried out under vacuum, and scattered X-rays were detected using a Pilatus 100 k detector. Hydrated starch samples were weighed and placed into glass capillary tubes (Hilgenberg, Germany). Scattering measurements were performed with 30 minutes exposure time, and transmission measurements were carried out over 30s. Moisture content, crystallinity and particle size distribution were also evaluated using oven drying, X- ray diffraction and laser diffraction, respectively. Findings: The storage of the slurry in the presence of moisture strongly affects the physical changes and the orientation of the crystalline and amorphous layers. This was observed by variation in the intensity using SAXS and X-ray patterns. Conclusion & Significance: The implications of the findings warrant further studies, which extend to starches from a range of cereal grains.
University of Toronto, Canada
Title: Reverse-enteric iron microencapsulation with blend of chitosan and maltodextrin using spray drying: Tea fortification
Time : 10:35-10:50
Dr. Juveria Siddiqui is a post-doctoral fellow in Professor Diosady’s Food Engineering group. Her prime research interest is to understand the function of bioactive dietary components, their beneficial effects in human health, and nutraceutical development. The focus of her present research is the micronutrients fortification through development and optimization of iron-containing reverse-enteric coated micro-particles using spray drying technique. She is a recipient of research award from prestigious Schlumberger Foundation’s “Faculty for the Future” competition for young scholar
Iron deficiency is a major contributor to maternal death in developing countries. Iron fortification of staple foods is a cost-effective method of combatting iron deficiency anemia. To maintain iron bioavailability and to prevent its reaction with other food components or fortificants, iron compounds must be encapsulated. In this project iron containing microcapsules were prepared with chitosan and blended with maltodextrin using spray drying followed by spray coating with soy stearin. Process parameters were optimized for yield, encapsulation efficiency and stability of microcapsules. Effect of different concentration of chitosan (0.2-1.5%), composition of wall material and iron loading (10-40% FeSO4, w/w of total solids) on the bioavailability, particle morphology and surface iron exposure were evaluated. Findings: Iron release kinetics of microcapsules at pH 1, 4, 7 for 2 hours showed highest release (@ 90%) within 30 min under stomach conditions (pH 1) and least (@ 15%) at pH 7, exhibiting reverse-enteric behavior. External morphology of iron microcapsules, using SEM, revealed spherical structure with minimum cracks and deformations on the surface. Particle size as analyzed by SEM was in the range of 1.97-10.80 mm. Microcapsules prepared by 40 % FeSO4 coated by chitosan released only 24 % of the added iron at 95±5°C after 30 min, while addition of maltodextrin and spray coating with soy stearin releases only 20% - making it suitable for the fortification of “tea" – a staple that is widely consumed in South Asian countries with extensive iron deficiency, and thus may contribute to Saving Lives at Birth.
University of Auckland, New Zealand
Title: Lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation in dairy products as influenced by processing and storage
Time : 10:50-11:05
Fatemeh Mahmoodani is a PhD student of food science at the School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Her current research focuses on vitamin D3 degradation in whole milk powder and identification of vitamin D3 isomerization and oxidation products. Her PhD project is collaboration with Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd. and funded by the Primary Growth Partnership Programme of New Zeeland. She received her MSc degree in food science, working on the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of bioactive peptides, in 2012 from the National University of Malaysia.
Statement of the Problem: Dairy products are good targets for fortification with vitamin D. The stability of added micronutrients is one of the most important factors. Vitamin D3 is likely to decline during processing and storage of fortified products, and oxidation is suspected as the likely cause. Fatty acid lipoxidation could be one of the ways which causes vitamin D3 degradation. The influence of heat treatment and storage conditions on lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation in simulated milk powder were investigated.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In milk powder processing, heat treatment and storage conditions are two factors which could have an effect on lipid oxidation. In this study, simulated whole milk powder (SWMP) were produced and fortified with vitamin D3 premix. Pasteurized and non-pasteurized samples were stored at room temperature (RT) and 40ºC for 12 months. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were monitored by analyzing PV and TBARS values, respectively. Vitamin D3 content was also analyzed in model samples during the storage period.
Findings: Based on the observation of 12 month storage, heat treatment resulted in lower levels of PV and TBARS in SWMPs compared to those without heat treatment. Storage temperature was important in lipid oxidation of model milk powders. The higher storage temperature lead to increased PV levels and TBARS values. In terms of vitamin D3 content, heat treatment resulted in lower vitamin D3 degradation for both samples stored at RT (B1) and 40°C (B2) (Figure1). However, upon storage vitamin D3 content decreased in B2 and showed the lowest after 7 months of storage.
Conclusion & Significance: During 12 months storage, an inverse relationship was observed between secondary lipid oxidation products and vitamin D3 degradation for SWMPs. This indicated that the generation of lipid oxidation products is associated with the degradation of vitamin D3.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Title: The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid isomers is positively correlated with capacity to up-regulate nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling in Caco-2 cells
Time : 11:25-11:40
Ningjian Liang received her bachelor degree in Biology Engineering from China Agriculture University in 2009. Then she went to the University of Hawaii at Manoa and got her master degree in Food Science under the supervision of Dr. Yong Li. During the master thesis program, Ningjian invented a novel detection method to specifically detect viable Salmonella Typhimurium in vegetables. After completing her master degree, Ningjian joined Dr. David D. Kitts’ lab at the University of British Columbia to pursue the Ph.D in Food Science. Ningjian’s research focuses on the effects of bioactive compounds in coffee on modulating oxidative and inflammatory responses in human intestine.
Statement of the Problem: Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the most abundant phenolic compounds present in coffee beans. Major chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in coffee include; caffeoylquinic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA)) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA)). In this study, we measured the antioxidant activity of major CGA isomers using chemical and cell-based antioxidant assays. Furthermore, we explored the relationship between the antioxidant activity capacity with affinity to modulate nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling in an in vitro human intestinal inflammation model.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The antioxidant activity of CGA isomers were evaluated by ORAC assay and intracellular oxidative assay in Caco-2 cells. Then the capacities of CGA isomers in modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling were studied in an in vitro human intestinal inflammation model which is the differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with a cocktail of human interferon g and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (IFNg+PMA).
Findings: The results obtained from ORAC assay showed that antioxidant capacity of 5-CQA was 3.5±0.1 mM Trolox Equivalent/mmol, similar to 4-CQA and 3-CQA, respectively; whereas 3,5-diCQA, 3,4-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA all had significantly higher capacity to scavenge peroxyl radical as evidenced by higher ORAC values (P<0.05). The relative antioxidant activity of CGA isomers in AAPH challenged Caco-2 cells was also determined. In this assay. AAPH was used to generated ROS and initiate oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells, with the DCFH-DA probe used as the measure for quantifying intracellular ROS. A dose-response reduction in fluorescence intensity was observed for all six CGA isomers. At low (2 mM) equimolar concentrations tested, caffeylquinic acids was ineffective at suppressing fluorescence intensity, whereas dicaffeylquinic acids suppressed around 20% fluorescence intensity compared to the control. Increasing molar concentrations by 10-fold showed caffeylquinic acids and dicaffeylqunic acids to reduce 40% and 60% AAPH induced ROS, respectively, compared to the control (P<0.05). Differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with IFNg+PMA in vitro was used to study human intestinal inflammation. An increase in ROS level was observed in cells exposed to IFNg+PMA compared to cells without any treatment (blank), indicating that inflammation status was accompanied with an increased ROS generation. Pre-incubation with CGA for 24 hours before IFNg+PMA treatment significantly reduced ROS generation compared to the cells without CGA treatment but with IFNg+PMA exposure. This result suggested that CGA isomers alleviated oxidative stress in inflamed Caco-2 cells. To further investigate the mechanisms behind the intracellular antioxidant of CGA isomers in IFNg+PMA treated Caco-2 cells, the cytosolic fraction and nuclear fraction of were extracted and separated and the amount of p65 (the subunit of NFκB) was quantified by ELISA in the nuclear fraction. The result showed that 24 hour pre-incubation with CGA before IFNg+PMA treatment significantly increased p65 nuclear translocation, when compared to the control cells (P<0.05). This result indicates that CGA isomers can up-regulate NFκB signaling in inflamed Caco-2 cells.
Conclusion & Significance: CGA isomers showed free radical scavenging capacity both in a cell free and cell based assays using either AAPH or IFNg+PMA to challenge Caco-2 cells. In addition, induced oxidative stress corresponded to up-regulation of NFκB signaling in IFNg+PMA challenged Caco-2 cells. Hence, antioxidant capacity of chlorogenic acid isomers is positively correlated with affinity to up-regulate nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling in human intestinal cells. We conclude that CGA isomers exert intracellular antioxidant activity through both direct free radical scavenging action and indirect modulating inflammatory pathways.
RMIT University, Australia
Title: Molecular understanding of the interactions between milk protein, phenolic compounds and lipid oxidation products in liquid oat systems
Time : 11:40-11:55
Jasmeet Kaur is a current PhD student at the RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, under the supervision of Professor Stefan Kasapis. Her research is focused studying the effect of ultra-high temperature processing, storage condition and interactions of the micro constituents of oats with the co-soolutes such as milk protein, sucrose and oil in a model beverage system.
To increase the antioxidant consumption in human diet, the food industry aims to develop thermally processed products, including beverages containing a high content of oat. Nevertheless, the nutritional value and sensory appeal of liquid-like products with oat might be affected when subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment followed by prolonged storage at ambient conditions. For instance, ferulic acid, which is found attached to arabinoxylans, might undergo thermal decarboxylation leading to the formation of 4-vinyl guaiacol (PVG), a compound of very low sensory threshold value responsible for the development of phenolic off-flavour. In addition, heat treatment promotes lipid oxidation processes leading to rancidity via the production of volatiles including hexanal and pentyl furan. In order to evaluate nutritional availability and organoleptic acceptability, we have prepared model systems of liquid breakfast by incorporating oat grain to formulations in the presence of milk protein, sucrose and canola oil. Molecular interactions amongst these ingredients were examined following UHT processing during a twelve-week shelf life. Experimental protocol included application of analytical technology like HPLC (phenolic acids and avenanthramides), 2-D GC for free fatty acids, GC-MS for the evaluation of volatile lipid oxidation compounds, FTIR with fluorescence spectroscopy, surface tension and dynamic light scateering ( mastersizer and zetasizer) for patterning the complexation of micronutrients amongst chemical compounds. It was found that the nature of interactions (physical or chemical) between protein and phenolics, and protein with free fatty acids or volatiles is affected considerably by sample composition, thermal treatment and storage conditions having an unexpected impact on the quality and health aspects of these product concepts.
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Japan
Title: Nondestructive prediction of initial freshness condition in frozen fish fillets using excitation-emission matrix
Time : 11:55-12:10
Fish freshness is very important to the international fish markets and especially for Japanese people who are accustomed to consuming the raw fish as ‘Sushi’ and ‘Sashimi’. However, once the raw fish with a variety of freshness are getting frozen, it’s very difficult to distinguish them instantly by naked eyes. To know the freshness status of frozen fish fillets, it is necessary to let them thaw first and subsequent assessment of freshness using conventional chemical methods which are destructive and time-consuming. The nondestructive freshness assessment of frozen fish fillets without thawing is a big challenge. A few previous studies have proved the potentiality of fluorescence spectroscopy for the freshness assessment of fish based on some freshness indices (e.g. K-value). Therefore, the present study was aimed to propose a nondestructive method using the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of fluorescence spectroscopy based on the most important intrinsic fluorophores for determining the freshness of frozen fish fillets at early stages after death. Right fillets of fifty-six horse mackerel fish (Trachurus japonicus) were vacuum packed with a plastic bag, kept in ice for 14 different periods (0-48 hour) to prepare samples with different freshness conditions (n=4) and finally stored at -30°C. EEM spectra of the samples were then acquired directly from the frozen fillets using fluorescence spectrophotometer (F-7000) and an external fiber optic probe installed inside the freezer. Subsequently, the ATP-related compounds and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NADH) content of the same samples were determined using relevant biochemical methods. Partial least square (PLS) regression models were developed under a 10-fold cross-validation method by comparing the chemical data with the masked EEM spectra (1054 variables). The PLS model of adenylate energy charge (AEC) values (relative ratio of ATP, ADP, and AMP) showed the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.94 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.48% with 9 latent factors (LF). Furthermore, the PLS model of NADH content was observed with R2 of 0.88, RMSE of 0.07 µmol/g and LF of 8. As a freshness index, the AEC values and NADH content indicated the energy status and color changes in fish fillets, respectively which could be predicted by PLS model. Thus, the EEM spectra coupled with chemometrics offers a simple and rapid approach to predict the freshness status at the early stage in post-mortem fish muscle nondestructively keeping the sample in a frozen state during the assessment.
E Martinez-Soberanes is a Mechatronic Engineer with experience in advance design and applied engineering in interdisciplinary problems. During his master studies, he gained experience in microfabrication and processes with microparticles. He has special interest in practical engineering problems that involve design methodologies that required high innovation and conceptual abstraction. He did his Bachelor of Engineering in Mexico, and he finished his master´s degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. He is undertaking a PhD degree program at the University of Saskatchewan studying canola dehulling.
Statement of the Problem: Seed hulls are fiber rich and typically contribute little nutrient value. Dehulling seed is often practiced to enrich protein and decrease fibre content. The dehulled product has improved properties as a food and feed. Dehulling oilseed has been a challenging process. Different approaches for dehulling oilseeds have been proposed including disc, roll, and impact milling, in conjunction with preconditioning of the seeds using thermal and moisture treatments. These methods, which are adaptations from dehulling processes of other seeds, have not been suitable for removing hull from the kernel without significant transfer of seed oil to the hull. Unfortunately, small and heterogeneous seed is difficult to dehull. To the best of our knowledge, there are few studies focused on developing a dehulling process specifically for canola that could be industrialized for the production of oil and meal.
The purpose of this study is to identify and optimize the most efficient oilseed dehulling process for canola. Any process developed should be practical and suitable for industrial production. We have observed the dehulling of single seeds using a roll milling device at low speeds and with different roller sizes. Findings: It was observed that minimal compression between rolls is ideal to avoid seed bruising and smaller rollers reduced the compression time of the seed. However, the efficiency of roll milling is dependent on seed size and difficult to optimize. Therefore, a size-independent method might be more suitable; for instance, tangential impact on seeds with a moving object at high speeds might provide an alternate approach. Conclusions and future work: Size-independent processes might me more suitable to overcome the issue of working with heterogeneous seed sizes. The size dependency of roll milling could be reduced by implementing soft material rollers which could adapt to different seed sizes. To optimize any of the proposed methods, it is required to determine the mechanical behavior of the seeds under compression stress and shear stress, which would yield information of the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus and ultimate strength, of both cotyledon and hull. This analysis should also include different seed treatments that could benefit the removal of the hull from the kernel.
University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Title: Genotype effects on flaxseed gum composition and functional properties: Making a consistent hair-gel
Time : 12:10-12:25
Miss Adebimpe Oyeneye is a masters’ student at the University of Saskatchewan from Nigeria with special interest in the utilization of plants to meet the needs of a targeted population. She has worked with an ethnobotanical research center that focused on the use of different methods of extraction of different plant products to treat several medical conditions. Her current research is on the use of the flax gum for hair gel and improvement of its holding property.
A search of the words flaxseed gum (FG) on “YouTube” will provide links for over 200 videos. A large portion of these videos describe successes and failures in the utilization of home preparations of flaxseed. We wished to determine if genotype was a contributing factor to the use of FG preparations. Gum extracts were prepared from six prominent Canadian flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivars. Yield, neutral sugar content, acidic sugar content, and protein content varied significantly among cultivar FG extracts. Solution zeta potential from −16.4 to −27.4 mV and rheological properties were cultivar dependent. Solutions prepared with CDC Glas FG had the highest viscosity (2.984 Pa•s), while CDC Sorrel produced the lowest (0.048 Pa•s). FG solutions exhibited pseudo-plastic shear thinning behaviour. FG solution viscosity increased with concentration while viscosity and pseudo-plasticity decreased with increased temperature. Sodium chloride (NaCl) addition decreased solution viscosity while adding sucrose-increased viscosity. FG solutions prepared from Flanders and CDC Sorrel had the highest and lowest emulsion activity index respectively, while solutions of CDC Arras FG and CDC Bethune had the lowest and highest emulsion stability respectively. Findings presented here could explain the inconsistencies in FG preparations reported by lay persons.
The purpose of this study is to describe the physicochemical and functional characterization of FG prepared from six Canadian flaxseed cultivars, including CDC Bethune, CDC Sorrel, CDC Arras, CDC Glas, Vimy, and Flanders. FG yield, neutral sugar content, acidic sugar content, and protein content of FG from these cultivars. The knowledge of the effects of genotype on FG properties could allow the users of flaxseed to produce more consistent products. Findings: FG solutions prepared from all cultivars exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Apparent viscosity was cultivar dependent and positively correlated with neutral sugar content but negatively with acidic sugar and protein content. Cultivar dependent FG solution rheological properties were also observed with changes in solution temperature (15−45 ºC), solution pH (3.0−9.0), NaCl concentration (0−200 mM), and sucrose concentration (0−20%, w/v). FG solution emulsification properties (emulsion activity index and emulsion stability) were also determined by flaxseed cultivar. Findings from this study provide useful information regarding FG properties as a gel for use in hair products, food additives, cosmetic ingredients or pharmaceutical ingredients. Conclusion & Significance: The differences in FG properties are so large between genotypes it is likely that attempts to utilize an FG product would be impossible without preselecting and appropriate source cultivar. Conversely, FG products made from identity preserved seed have greater utility. These findings will be discussed with respect to the use of FG in preparing hair gel.
Yulia Dudnyk did her master in process engineering of products for health and preventive nutrition at Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies (ONAFT, Ukraine) by the topic: improvement quality and usefulness of puree for baby nutrition. Then did research at department of water treatment technologies (ONAFT, Ukraine) in developing device for small disperse systems in water/air interfaces for removing Fe2+ and Fe3+ from natural drinking groundwater. After she moved to Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland) and started research in material science and food sensors. Recently started PhD in Institute of Materials, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland) and doing research in intergrading food and material science
Recent years have seen the development of smart packing, food sensors, amino/pH sensors and other optical or visual sensors of food spoilage to monitor freshness status of food products inline with the EU food quality and safety regulations.
Meat and fish are common sources of proteins in human nutrition, and, they are also rich source of nutrients for microbial growth. Spoilage processes inside these products occur rapidly with microbial growth and creation of amines which is the TVB-N (total volatile basic nitrogen) that caused by microbial metabolisms and known as spoilage indicator that tells about creation of products potentially hazardous to health.[1, 2, 3] Last two decades was developed a lot of methods to control and measure essentially important food safety indicators known as smart packages and spoilage sensors, but still mostly part of them unpractical/difficult for usage at home conditions by costumer or contains components that cannot be in contact with product by healthy consumption reasons. That’s why become an interest in real-time sensors for food quality control with the most attention focused on sensors for costumer usage. [4, 5]
To eliminate such barriers here the sensor film itself is made of fully edible components/materials. The matrix of film sensor based on pectin that is a natural polysaccharide (polymer) extracted commercially from citrus fruits and apples, and the color pigment as an indicator of spoilage made of extract from red cabbage.
Sensor films absolutely safe as far as contains natural components and high sensitive to amines. The sensitivity of sensor films begins at point 1ppm of vapor amines and with increasing volume of vapor amines changes visually color of film sensor. This high sensitivity was observed on testing sensor films with meat and fish samples for detection freshness of these products
Yingxue Hu is a current Master student in College of Agriculture and Bioresources in University of Saskatchewan. She completed her BSc in the Department of Food and Bioproduct Science at the University of Saskatchewan. Her planned MSc research, under the supervision of professor Martin JT Reaney, will include an investigation of the utility of FG solutions in commercial food products such as healthy beverages.
Statement of the Problem: There is a considerable interest in the health benefits and functional properties of flaxseed products. Flaxseed gum (FG), a byproduct of flaxseed meal production, has been widely studied in food production as thickener, emulsifier and foaming agent. FG can be recovered from seed hull by hot-water extraction. Due to the complicated polymer structure of FG and the presence of bioactive compounds, it is predictable that extraction temperature might play an important role in determining FG appearance, physicochemical properties and functional properties. In addition, extraction conditions might also determine the FG quality during storage. The persistence of FG qualities and functional performance during storage are critical in determining its commercial value and utility. Therefore, this research compares the functional properties of FG solutions prepared at two temperatures and the stability of these properties with storage.
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of hot-water extraction on the functional properties of crude flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. var. CDC Bethune) gum solutions by analyzing foaming, emulsification properties, and gum viscosity as well as tolerance to salt addition and a freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, changes in the appearance of gum solutions during storage at 4 ºC were also investigated to determine the impact of extraction temperature on gum stability and functional properties. Findings: FG prepared by extraction at 98 ºC had lower initial viscosity than FG extracted at 70 ºC but better stability of viscosity during storage. FG solutions prepared by extraction at either temperature exhibited similar tolerance to salt addition and freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, the higher extraction temperature produced FG solution with superior foaming and emulsification properties and those properties were also more stable. Foams and emulsions produced by from FG extracted at higher temperature also had better stability during utilization. Conclusion & Significance: By summarizing all findings in this study, FG solution prepared by extraction at 98 ºC had better and more consistent characteristics including viscosity, foamability, and emulsification properties than FG produced at 70 ºC. Therefore, although higher temperature extraction requires more energy the FG solution is more stable properties and potentially more commercially valuable.
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Title: Fabrication of coffee whiteners using quillaja saponin and soy lecithin as natural emulsifiers
Time : 14:30-14:45
Cheryl Chung has experience in design, formulation and fabrication of low fat emulsion systems for development of healthful food products. She uses structural design approach to fabricate low fat sauces and salad dressings that possess similar physicochemical and sensory attributes as their full-fat counterparts. The use of structured emulsions (hydrogel particles, double emulsions, or multi-layer emulsions) can provide controlled-release mechanism to regulate the release of the encapsulated ingredients (e.g., fats). She is also interested in studying the potential use of natural and plant-based ingredients for stabilizing emulsion systems that are often stabilized by synthetic emulsifiers. Overall, regular consumption of healthful food products that are low in calories and contained natural, functional food (e.g., probiotics, flavonoids) and bioactive (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids) ingredients have potential to improve one’s health and wellness.
Statement of the Problem: Rising consumer demand for food products made with natural and plant-based ingredients has led to a search for natural alternatives to synthetic food ingredients. However, more studies are needed to determine their suitability as emulsifiers in specific food products, for example, coffee creamers. The present study compared the ability of two natural small molecule surfactants – quillaja saponin (0.5–2.5%) and soy lecithin (1–5%) – to stabilize 10% oil-in-water emulsions for use as model coffee creamers. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The physical properties of the emulsions and their stability against feathering and creaming after added to acidic hot coffee were determined. Findings: The emulsions lightness decreased with increasing emulsifier concentration in both systems, which was attributed to the inherent color of the emulsifiers (increased absorption) and the decrease in droplet size (decreased scattering). The mean droplet diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier concentration (0.5 to 0.15 micron for quillaja saponin and 0.8 to 0.14 micron for soy lecithin) due to their ability to cover more surface area. Both emulsifiers led to the formation of oil droplets with a high negative charge (zeta potential of −45 to −70 mV), thereby generating a strong electrostatic repulsion that helped protect them against aggregation. Emulsions with higher emulsifier content remained physically stable when added to an acidic hot coffee solution (85 °C), with no visible phase separation or increase in particle size. Conclusion & Significance: This study provides insight into the potential of two natural emulsifiers to form stable emulsions suitable for application in coffee creamers.
Aquafaba, the viscous liquid resulting from cooking chickpeas in water has been widely used by vegan community as an egg replacement that adds texture to food products, such as mayonnaise, pudding, ice cream, and baked goods. Furthermore, aquafaba is easily accessible and inexpensive. It is obtained by the consumer by simply straining seeds from the canning liquid. Thousands of webpages and YouTube videos have described the incorporation of aquafaba in recipes but many report failures in using aquafaba. There are many factors influencing aquafaba foaming capacity and stability. These need to be standardized to assure the final quality in aquafaba based foods.
The purpose of this study is to investigate aquafaba as an egg white replacement in a sponge cake. The typical major ingredients include egg white, sugar, and cake flour. Sponge cake is used in our study as a model system for investigating foam formation and stability of aquafaba from commercial canned chickpea. Texture properties and color of sponge cake made with aquafaba were compared to the properties of a similar cake recipe that included egg white. To our knowledge, this is the first research which describes the functional properties of the aquafaba and its application as egg replacer to make a sponge cake. Findings: The aquafaba obtained from each chickpea brand produced different foam properties and foam stability. In addition, aquafaba from some brands provided comparable foam volume and stability to that achieved with egg white. sponge cake made with both eggs and aquafaba were similar in colour and had acceptable texture but aquafaba cake was harder, less springy, and less chewy than cake that included eggs. Conclusion & Significance: Based on our results, it appears that aquafaba has potential to replace egg white and produce eggless cakes. Further study about the factors affecting foam capacity and stability of aquafaba is needed to provide consumers more information so that this homemade egg replacer can be incorporated in homemade food products.
University of Tehran, Iran
Title: Effect of nano packing and aluminum on deterioration of soybean and corn seed in different storage condition
Time : 15:00-15:15
Farhad Barazandeh Gholdareh has his expertise in seed science and technology. He has experiences in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both in seed laboratory and education institutions
The main goal of seed storage is to maintain the quality of seed from the harvesting time till sowing it the next year. And among all factors, Storage temperature and moisture content are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigour and by controlling these factors we could decrease the deterioration of seeds during storage. Using appropriate packaging is a good and easy way for controlling storage conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of using different packages on the amount of deterioration in two seeds, soybean JK and maize 704 variety, kept in different moistures and temperatures conditions, and also we determined seed viability constants for them. Treatments were two types of package (nano and aluminium), three levels of moisture content (8, 12 and 16 %), three temperatures (5, 20 and 35) and six storage periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months). The quality of stored seeds was tested by measuring different seed viability and vigour indices in each period. The results showed that with the increase in storage time, both seed viability and vigour decreased and it was more severe in high moisture and temperature treatments and in most indices the decreased was seen in the first month of storage in 16% seed water content and 10 C temperature treatment and not in other onces, which shows that storage condition in more important in storage than other factors. For all indices, germination rate and percentage, mean germination time (MGT), percentage of normal seedlings, seedling dry weight, vigour index and electrical conductivity, in both soybean and maize seeds, there were significant differences in main and quadratic interaction (time*package*moisture*temperature) at 1% probability level. The effect of package material was different in different moisture and temperature treatments, as seeds stored at nono packages showed less deterioration only in high moisture and temperatures, while, in low level moisture and temperature no significant difference was seen between aluminium and nono packages. Also, in most cases seeds stored in aluminium packages lost viability and vigour in the first month of storage in 16% WC and 10 C, while in lost happened in the fifth and sixth month (four months delay) for seeds in nano packages. So, nono packages keeps the quality of seeds in improper storage conditions and therefore are recommended as good materials for seeds storage. Measuring the activity of ntioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase guaiacol) and malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide showed that antioxidant system is generally more active in Nano seed packaging and the amount of malondialdehyde and peroxides hydrogen was observed more in Aluminum seed packaging. Finally, by comparing the effects of different factors, seed water content and temperaturs are reported the most important facors in preserving seed quality and inhibiting seed aging during storage for soybean and maize seeds and Nano seed packaging is better for storing seeds in higher temperature and humidity
Miss Shuyu Shang graduated from University of Saskatchewan in 2016 from the department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences. She joined the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, at the University of Saskatchewan for her MSc program in September 2016. During her Master degree program, her efforts have included studies of gum extraction and utilization in beverages.
Statement of the Problem: Oilseeds grown in Canada, including flaxseed, canola, camelina, radish and Brassica carinata have common structural features that include a hull with low protein and oil content and an inner kernel that has much higher concentrations of these nutrients. Milling oilseed typically leads to a coarse meal that can be classified using air to separate the hulls and meal based on differential aerodynamic properties. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of different seed dehulling methods on oil content and elemental composition of hull- rich and kernel- rich fractions and optimize wet dehulling methods. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Seeds were milled using either disc or roller mill devices after equilibrating at –38 ºC or 22 ºC. Milled seed was suspended in one of three non-toxic solvents with densities greater than water; triacetin, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300, and glycerol. In all samples sedimentation and floatation were observed. In addition, ethanol or distilled water were also added to the solvents to lower viscosity and density. After settling floating and settled fractions were separated and rinsed for further analysis. Oil, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and moisture content of all fractions were analyzed. Findings: Pre chilling of the seed improved milling efficiency, and disc milling gave a higher recovery rate than roller milling. The carbon, nitrogen, oil and sterol contents of kernel enriched floating fractions were higher than for the hull rich settling fractions. The triacetin and PEG produced superior separations when compared to samples separated with glycerol. Conclusion & Significance: All milled oilseeds were successfully separated using the solvent systems tested. Most solvent systems produced excellent separation. From the comparison of oil content in the hull and kernel fractions, triacetin or triacetin-EtOH solutions were more effective for the density separation of oilseed meal from hull.
Networking & Refreshment Break, 16:00-16:30