Day 2 :
The Ohio State University, USA
Gary Stoner, PhD., is Professor Emeritus in the College of Medicine, Ohio State University. His areas of expertise are chemical carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention. His early research was focused on lung cancer and tobacco carcinogenesis. Later he investigated the cancer preventative effects of naturally-occurring isothiocyanates and found them to be potent inhibitors of N-nitrosamine carcinogenesis. He then pioneered a “food-based” approach to cancer prevention using freeze-dried black raspberries. The berries significantly reduce tumorigenesis in the oral cavity, esophagus and colon of rodents and regress premalignant lesions in these same tissues in humans. His laboratory identified multiple mechanisms of cancer prevention by berries. His research is documented in more than 350 peer reviewed publications. He has
received numerous awards for his research including the US NIH Merit Award and he is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is also a recipient of the Distinguished Alumni Award and an Honorary Doctorate from Montana State University.
Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including animal models of oral, esophageal,
colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or in patients at increased risk for cancer development. The initial clinical study in humans was a phase I trial in which BRBs were administered to humans at a dose known to be chemopreventive in animal models. The berries were found to be well tolerated however; the uptake of both BRB anthocyanins and ellagic acid into blood was less than 1% of the administered dose. Thus, berries are most effective in tissues where localized absorption is possible. With this in mind, different formulations of BRBS have been evaluated for their effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the human oral cavity, esophagus and colon.
Oral cavity: Topical application of a BRB gel to dysplastic lesions (oral leukoplakia) caused histologic regression that was associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, as well as modulation of genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling.
Esophagus: In patients with Barrett’s esophagus, oral consumption of BRBs increased tissue levels of GST-P1 and decreased urinary 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. There was little effect on lesion size.
Colon: In colorectal cancer patients, BRB consumption inhibited cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis (new blood vessel formation) and caused demethylation of tumor suppressor genes associated with the Wnt signaling pathway. In FAP patients, BRB suppositories inhibited rectal polyp progression and improved plasma cytokine profiles.
Stomach: Because we have found recently that an extract of BRBS inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori, there is an ongoing trial to evaluate the effects of BRBS on stomach cancer. Common themes across studies support that berries are antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity.
Natural Resource Institute Finland, Finland
Anne Pihlanto has completed her PhD in Food Chemistry at University of Turku (Finland) and Postdoctoral studies from University of Lyon. She has worked as a Scientist of Natural Resources Institute in Finland. She has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and invited chapters in Books.
Statement of the Problem: There is an accruing body to show an urgent need to shift toward a more plant-based diet for both environmental and health reasons. Now, the world population is rapidly growing and with it the demand for dietary protein, mainly of animal origin, is projected to increase by more than 50% by 2030 compared to 2000. The traditional western dietary pattern focuses predominantly on animal-based products to satisfy protein requirements. There are multiple reasons why plant proteins are still underutilized as human foods: their lower nutritional values (on a single source basis) due to their amino acids and non-nutritive compounds compared to animal proteins. The physical functionalities, such as poor solubility in water, may hinder their maximal utilization.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: To increase the food security novel, underutilized protein was produced to use in food and feed. We selected green technologies, such as pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE), enzymatic, traditional precipitation techniques. Chemical composition, functional properties and in vitro digestibility were tested before and after processing. Qualitative and quantitative consumer research (focus groups and surveys) and market analyses were also included.
Conclusion & Significance: The raw materials (Vicia fava, Lupinus angustifolinus, Brassica rapa/napus subsp. Oleifera, Linum usitatissimum, Cannabis sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Chenopodium quinoa) were good sources of protein, fiber and phenolic compounds. PHWE, enzymatic treatments were suitable for recovery of good quality protein fractions. Fermentation was suitable to increase the shelf life and nutritional quality of pseudo-cereals. Processing techniques can enhance the digestibility of plant protein. Consumers in studied countries (FI, SE, DE and UK) are open to increase use of plant-based food, and the market for meat and dairy alternatives is growing across Europe.
Rongo University, Kenya
Charles Mbakaya holds a PhD in Analytical/Food Chemistry from Kenyatta University and is an Associate Professor and Agriculture Department Dean; School of Science Technology and Engineering, Rongo University, Kenya.
The hypothesis that the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is HIV only has been problematic for decades. Consequently, a review of selected bioanalytical/chemical studies on AIDS in Kenya and beyond shows that nutritional interventions, though neglected, play a critical role in management of this disease. From these studies, micronutrient zinc stands out and in consistency with the scientific literature as a critical immuno-modulator. In one of the studies in Kenya, low optical density of HIV antibodies correlated with high serum zinc levels (p = 0.008) as significant reduction of viral load correlated with high optical densities of HIV antibodies (p = 0.016); suggesting that lowering of serum zinc is physiological and enables viral load reduction. Furthermore, studies in the USA have shown that when the human immune system is overwhelmed by pathogens, it switches from innate (Th-1) to humoral (Th-2) immunity; an earlier study in Europe having shown micronutrient zinc deficiency to be the key that effects this switch. Other studies have implicated exposure to dioxins and mycotoxins in the elevated risk of HIV infection while HIV-free AIDS individuals have been reported and genetic and environmental factors implicated, partly agreeing with an earlier observation that malnutrition and chemicals are the cause of AIDS. These studies do suggest that susceptibility to AIDS and cancer significantly correlates with nutritional and environmental parameters, HIV included. Therefore, a re-think of AIDS causation to provide for a more inclusive/unified hypothesis is indicated and has potential to unleash wholistic and game-changing strategies of combating AIDS and cancer befitting of evidence–guided and finer scientific thinking in the 21st Century.