Day 2 :
Toyo College of Food Technology, Japan
Keynote: Functional and nutritional properties of buckwheat, quinoa and adlay as pseudo-cereals improve life-style related diseases
Time : 10:10-10:40
Dr. Naofumi Morita is currently a member of the (Trustee of) Toyo College of Food Technology after his retirement of Osaka Prefecture University. He is a former president of the Japanese Society for Cereal Scientists, and now is vice president of the Bread Society of Japan. His specializations are in Cereal Chemistry and Food Processing. Furthermore, he is vice chief director of NPO for Patentability-based Practical Application of Wheat & Barley. He is now interested in developing barley flour substituted bread in Japan, because barley flour contains enough amounts of dietary fiber and beta-glucan for our health benefit.
University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Time : 10:40-11:10
Statement of the Problem: Health Canada has approved claims on product labels that relate flaxseed consumption with reduction of blood cholesterol levels and research has also shown that consumption of milled flaxseed lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Effects of flaxseed consumption on health might arise from alpha-linolenic acid, high molecular weight polysaccharides and lignan but contributions from other bioactive compounds are likely. Biologically active orbitides, for example, might contribute to flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) effects on both blood pressure and cholesterol. Flaxseed bioactive constituents have never been standardized through breeding. Therefore, it is possible that more potent and less potent flaxseed cultivars might be available. Most studies of the effects of flaxseed and flaxseed products on health do not fully document the flaxseed source or the total portfolio of active ingredients. The purpose of this study is to examine the prospects for expanding flaxseed production and consumption as a source of ω-3 oils; summarize the nutraceutical and functional aspects of flaxseed products; and highlight several new commercial flaxseed products. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: While oil is the main driver for production of flaxseed it is clear that processes that recover oil from seed and refine it for the consumer vary and are specific to the intended use. Settling and filtration may be used for all flaxseed oil but industrial oil used for drying may be more fully refined with additional steps of alkali refining, bleaching, and deodorizing. Findings: Whole seed products have a portfolio of potentially beneficial compounds but some of the compounds in flaxseed may not be desirable for all consumers. Most notably the high fibre content of flaxseed may not be desirable for individuals that have intestinal difficulties that preclude consumption of large volumes of dietary fibre. Low fibre flaxseed products have been developed for human consumption. Similarly, the inclusion of bioactive cyanogenic glycosides, linatine, lignans, and orbitides in foods may not be compatible with desired health outcomes. It is now possible to obtain flaxseed products that are enriched or highly enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fibres, lignans, and orbitides. Conclusion & Significance: New highly enriched products are emerging from the flaxseed portfolio that provide specific consumers benefits. Flaxseed consumer sophistication will align with equally sophisticated new products.
Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan
Keynote: The functional compounds of sorghum distillery residue and their enhancing temperature adaptation effects on fishes
Time : 11:30-12:00
Prof. Pan is the Chair Professor of the Food Science Department at the national Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung. She is also the President of Taiwan Quality Food (TQF) Association (formerly known as Taiwan Food GMP Association). Prof. Pan has a Ph.D. in Food Science from Rutgers University, USA and MSc in Food Science and Technology from University of Massachusetts, USA. She is a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) and a Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology (IAFoST). She was the recipient of Outstanding Research Award, National Science Council (1994) and National Outstanding Women’s Award (1982).
Sorghum distillery residue (SDR) has been an underutilized co-product produced at 250 tons per day in Kinmen Kaoliang Liquor Co. Its crude protein and carbohydrate contents are 20.84% and 64.46% respectively. SDR is rich in nutrients and bioactive substances, which could be a plant-protein source to substitute for fishmeal. SDR was fermented with Coriolus versicolor LH1 to hydrolyse the crude fiber to improve the digestibility to produce f-SDR. Tilapia was used to assess the bioactivity of SDR and f-SDR. Their bioactive compounds were identified. Phenolic acids include gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid; isoflavones including daidzin; phytosterols including β-sitosterol; policosanols including hexacosanol, octacosanol and triacontanol, were identified. The functional components contributing to the anti-cold and anti-heat stress effects including phytosterols, policosanols and phenolic acids were higher in f-SDR than SDR. Phytosterols increased by 54% including ergosterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; policosanols increased by 67% including hexacosanol and octacosanol; phenolic acids increased by 46% including gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The content of tannin was reduced by 36.42%, triterpenoids increased by 54.5%, the β-D-glucans content was significantly increased from 5.68 ± 0.07 mg/g to 8.60 ± 0.68 mg/g. The (1, 3)-β-D-glucans was the main polysaccharide type of which molecular weight ranged 0.18 - 5.9 kDa, and a small amount of molecules ranged 200-2000 kDa. Sweet-taste amino acids (taurine, glycine, alanine) and bitter amino acids (isoleucine, arginine) contents increased slightly, umami amino acid (glutamic acid) content increased 2.33 times. White shrimp were attracted to f-SDR feeds likely due to these amino acids. We confirmed that SDR and f-SDR containing, phenolics, policosanols and phytosterols improved energy metabolism and inhibited plasma LDL oxidation, lipoxygase activity and blood rheology of tilapia and white shrimp. They showed potential to develop into feed materials to enhance temperature-adaptation of fishes.
Food Development Centre, Canada
Time : 12:00-12:30
Dagmara Head holds a position of Senior Process Development Consultant in the Department of Research & Development at Food Development Centre (FDC) in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. During the last 5 years with FDC, she has been fortunate to be involved in many projects related to value addition to various food processing by-products. Prior to her appointment at FDC, Dr. Head worked in the regulatory affairs field in a private consulting company, held food laboratory research positions, and held various summer jobs within food industry in Europe. Dr. Head holds a B.Sc./M.Sc. in Food Science from the Warminsko-Mazurski University in Olsztyn, Poland and a Ph.D. in Biosystems Engineering from the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Dr. Head is an active member of the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology
Statement of the Problem: Food and beverage manufacturing is an important part of the global economy. Food manufacturing uses a lot of water and generates numerous by-products (waste streams). The by-products often contain valuable components, depending on the commodity processed and the type of processing (example: starch and protein in potato processing effluent). Often, the valuable components could be recovered and used as ingredients in food, nutraceutical and other bio-products. Sometimes, additional processing (fermentation, thermal processing) can be applied to a by-product to improve its functional and sensory characteristics, making it attractive for use in food. Globally, more emphasis is placed on utilization/reduction of waste streams of various food industries (plant and animal based) for environmental sustainability; it also makes economic sense, as it could help companies increase their profit margins. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss food processing industries and the by-products generated, provide examples of potential components for recovery, and identify potential applications. Methodology & Findings: The presentation will outline some of the emerging opportunities and challenges of by-products utilization, and how industry is working to address them. The presentation will focus on the by-product utilization work conducted at the Food Development Centre, a Special Operating Agency of the Province of Manitoba. Additional examples of by-product utilization processes developed elsewhere will be presented. Conclusion & Significance: Many opportunities exist for better utilization of food processing by-products. At the Food Development Centre, a variety of processes have been developed for converting these by-products into food ingredients and other valuable bio-products, thus assisting companies in becoming more sustainable. The recovery of high value components from what is generally considered a waste and an expense for companies, not only creates valuable ingredients but could also profit the companies and ultimately help to keep the waste streams off the landfill.
Title: Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon essential oil encapsulated in simple emulsion against bacteria
Time : 12:30-13:15
Encapsulation by means of emulsification has been recently studied to protect lipidic compounds in a micro- and nano- scale (Cardoso-Ugarte, López-Malo & Jiménez-Munguía, 2016; Peredo-Luna, López-Malo, Palou, Jiménez-Munguía, 2016). Cinnamon essential oil has demonstrated important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms, due to its components (Cardoso-Ugarte, López-Malo, Sosa-Morales, 2016). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon essential oil encapsulated in simple emulsion, against Escherichia coli or Listeria moncytogenes in model systems. The essential oil was encapsulated in O/W simple emulsion, prepared by ultrasonic homogenization. The emulsion was characterized as Figure 1. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for both bacteria. The characterization of the emulsion was reported with the following data: particle size with a median diameter (D50) of 1.15 μm, a viscosity of 1.092±0.011 mPa·s, a density of 1.023±0.00g/cm3, a pH value of 4.77±0.01 and the color parameters of L* (85.44±0.35), a* (-1.84±0.01) and b* (2.98±0.01). The result for MIC and MBC of pure essential oil was 12.5 ppm, for L. monocytogenes and for E. coli was 10 ppm. The cinnamon essential oil encapsulated presented different MIC and MBC for the studied bacteria, for E. coli was 10 ppm and 2.5 ppm, while for L. monocytogenes was 8 ppm and 2.5 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, the MIC was higher than the registered MIC value, for both bacteria in pure essential oil or encapsulated. Moreover, the cinnamon essential oil encapsulated demonstrated to be more effective against these bacteria, in comparison with the pure essential oil. This study showed that the essential oil encapsulated in simple emulsion can be used for different applications against microorganisms
- Oral Session
Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI), Austria
National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
North Carolina Agricultural &Technical State University, USA
Time : 14:00-14:20
Dr. Jianmei Yu received her Ph.D. in Food Science from Louisiana State University (USA) in 1998. She is currently a Research Scientist in Food and Nutritional Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University. Her research area are analysis of food composition, value added utilization of agricultural by-product and food all allergen reduction. Dr. Yu has published more than 30 articles in peered journals and her publications were highly cited by other researchers in food science and nutrition.
Statement of the problem: grape pomace (GP)is the residue of grapes after wine making. It accounts for 25-30% of grapes crushed for wine making. The GP is rich in polyphenol and the health promoting and disease preventing benefits of different classes/groups of grape polyphenols are well documented. In addition to polyphenols, grape seeds contain 13-19% oil about 11% protein, 60-70% of non-digestible carbohydrates, and non-phenolic antioxidants such alpha-tocopherol in oils. Therefore, grape pomace has great potential to be a functional food ingredient.
We investigated nutritional and polyphenol compositions of pomace from Muscadine grapes, the native grapes of North America, their applications in bread, cookies and extruded product. Addition of GP flour in the formula of bread, cookies and extruded product resulted in significant changes in physiochemical properties in dose dependent-manner. Sensory properties of bread and cookies containing grape pomace flour varied with dose and particle size of GP, and there was no significant reduction in consumer acceptability of bread and cookies at GP content up to 5%. In vitro study showed that, GP polyphenol extract reduced the digestibility of food starch and lipid, but the effect on the digestibility of food protein varied with type of protein. Under simulated digestion condition, the digestibility of bread starch and protein were significantly reduced in the presence of GP. In vivo study using rat model found that consuming feed containing GP modulated the blood lipid profile of rat blood plasma and absorption of macronutrients. Therefore, long term consumption of products containing GP may reduce energy intake and help with obesity prevention.
University of British Columbia, Canada
Time : 14:20-14:40
Statement of the Problem: Coffee-leaf tea has been found to have potential health beneﬁts due to its high polyphenol content and low caffeine content, compared with green tea. There is no information related to the effects of both processing methods and the age of leaf on the phytochemical profile and related bioactivities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of different processing methods and age of coffee leaf, on the phytochemical profiles and associated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Methodology: Coffee leaves collected as young or old leaves harvested on a Nicaragua coffee plantation, were processed to mimic the production of white, green, oolong, and black tea by varying the processing method. The dried leaves were ground into powder and infused in boiling water for 0.5, 10, and 20 min, respectively. Phytochemical profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and the effects on nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in Raw264.7 cells, both with or without induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were investigated. Findings: The contents of mangiferin, caffeine, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 5-CQA, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), 3,5-diCQA, and rutin in coffee leaves extracted using hot water within 0.5 min were not significantly different in the same samples extracted longer for 10 or 20 min. Young coffee leaves processed by electric drying after a flash boil (e.g. green-tea-treatment), contained the highest contents of mangiferin, rutin, chlorogenic acids, and TPC, which also corresponding to high antioxidant activity. Young leaves dried using a drum drier after 2 h oxidation (e.g. oolong-tea-treatment) had significantly lower content of phenolic compounds, TPC, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity when compared with old leaves dried in the same way. However, when leaf was oxidized for 48h (e.g. black-tea-treatment), the old leaves had lower antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities compared to young leaves. In contrast to antioxidant activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of coffee leaf infused with boiling water for 10 and 20 min was significantly higher compared to the 0.5 min of infusion (P<0.05). A most interesting observation was with old leaves processed with a black-tea-treatment, that showed capacity to induce NO production in Raw 264.7 cells, while also having NO inhibitory effects when the cells were challenged with LPS+IFN-γ. All hot water extracts exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of iNOS protein expression when cells were challenged with LPS+IFN-γ, among which green-tea-treatment had greater inhibitory capacity compared to those processed using a black-tea-treatment. Moreover, old leaves processed with black-tea-treatment induced iNOS expression. Coffee leaf extracts could not significantly inhibit COX-2 expression, instead they induced COX-2 and the black-tea-treatment on the old leaf possessed the highest capacity to induce COX-2. Black-tea-treatment of the old leaf also significantly induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TNF-α. Green-tea-treatment of the young leaf significantly inhibited IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and GM-CSF. All four types of coffee leaves induced IL-1β, inhibited IL-6 and IL-10, whereas, they could not inhibit G-CSF and TNF-α. Conclusion & Significance: Our study shows that processing methods and the age of the coffee leaf at harvest will influence the phytochemical profile, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Although infusion time did not affect phenolic content, TPC and related antioxidant activities, there was an effect on the anti-inflammatory activity. Green-tea-treatment of young leaf possessed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China
Title: Enhancement of pigments production and antioxidant activity but decreacement of citrinin content by addition of Vitamin C in submerged fermentation of Monascus rubber
Time : 14:40-15:00
Dr. Wei-ping Wang is Professor of Biological Engineering, Hubei University of Technology. She has been studying on the production of red fermented rice for more than 20 years. Her expertise includes directional control of Monascus metabolites, process control of citrinin in monascus fermentation, natural active ingredients selection from red kojic rice and development of new drugs, fermentation process optimization and enlarge production, applications of red fermented rice in wine, bread and other foods.
The oxygen level was reported to play a vital role in the synthesis of pigments and citrinin by M. sp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of pigments and citrinin production and antioxidant activity by adding vitamin c into the mediumn during submerged fermentation of Monascus rubber. The results showed that inoculated vitamin c medium had significantly higher antioxidant activity than uninoculated vitamin c medium at all fermentation time points. The modified M. pilosus fermented product demonstrated a higher pigments and lower citrinin value than the unmodified product. The results of this study showed a new way to increase the yield of Monascus pigments and to decrease the citrinin content by adding vitamin C to the medium.
Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, China
Time : 15:00-15:20
Yong Fang obtained his Ph.D. in Food Science from Nanjing Agricultural University, China. He joined the faculty of College of Food Science and Engineering at Nanjing University of Finance and Economics In 2010. Since 2017 he was a professor of Food Science in NUFE. Research interests include analytical methodology of elemental speciation in food, processing of cereal grains etc. He has chaired several projects supported from the National Natural Science Foundation, the National Key Research of China, etc., and been financially supported by 5 Excellent-Talent funding including “the Jiangsu Six -Submit Talents Plan”. He is also a referee for international peer reviewed journals, such as Food Chemistry, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. He received several Chinese government awards for scientist including the first prize of Shandong Provincial Promoting Science and Technology award.
Status & Problem: Food and agriculture products are able to accumulate heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) from mining, industrial processing, pesticide and chemical fertilizer at considerable levels, which can lead to impairment of human health. Studies also have indicated that some low dietary elements such as Se intake level are directly correlated with the incidence of various forms of cancer. However, the interactions and functional connections of metal ions and their species with proteins, metabolites and other biomolecules in biological systems have not been previous studied. The purpose of this study is to research the mechanisms of interaction on metallic elements in food safety and nutrition from total amount to speciation. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Hyphenated techniques of high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HPLC-ICP-MS), such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), reversed-phase chromatography (RP) have been employed to RP-HPLC-ICPMS for the separation and specific element detection of metal species, while electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS) for the identification purposes to obtain organic structure of metal species, such as selenoaminoacids, selenopetides, metalloproteins etc., These analytical methods were combine to develop accurate, fast and efficiency method for information of metal speciation. An framework was developed to focus on the characteristics of interaction of total concentrations and their speciation of metallic elements both in food safety and nutrition. Finding: Simultaneous determination method of various element species in food was developed. The beneficial nutritional value and safety assessment of metallome are based on both the concentration ingested and their chemical form. Conclusion & Significance: The studies on metallomics in food safety and nutrition from total amount to speciation can probably help people find elemental speciation with high nutritional value and high edible safety in the process of planting and consumption of food and agriculture products.
Birjand University of Medical Sciences< Iran
Time : 15:20-15:40
Dr. Hoshyar is working as an Assistanat Professor at the Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used in various mechanisms including drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and treatment due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In this study, we applied one of main caratenoids of saffron stigma, crocetin, as reducing agent for one-pot green synthesis of controlled size AuNPs for the first time. To optimize the varoius factors on size and amount of produced AuNPs, different concentrations of gold ions (prepared from HAuCl4, 0–5mM) and crocetin (200-500 mM) were used at various time (1h–10 weeks) and temperatures (25–75 °C). These AuNPs were characterized through UV–vis, TEM and XRD techniques. The anti-cancer effect of AuNPs on breast cancer cells was determined using MTT assay. Optimal temperature and pH for biosynthesis of AuNPs conjugated with this antioxidant were 50ºC and 7.5, respectively. XRD and TEM results were authorized AuNPs production in 5-10 nm and stable, spherical and uniform. The cellular data were showed that these AuNPs significantly decreased cancerous cells' growth after 24 and 48hours in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Our study suggest that such AuNPs can be synthesized simply and quickly with invaluable clinical as well as pharmaceutical properties which can help to treat human breast cancer.
Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan
Time : 15:40-16:00
Ms. Jawed is a Registered Dietitian and Nutritionist (RDN), who is working as a Senior Lecturer, at the School of Public Health, Dow University of Health Sciences. She is also working as a research manager for a Higher Education Commission approved grant based community project on “Association between Micronutrients levels and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Pakistani Adolescents”. Currently she is the Vice President for Pakistan Nutrition and Dietetic Society (PNDS) (2013-till present). Subsequent to her graduation she has worked in various health care organizations and clinical settings. After working in a clinical setting she thought she needed to move further and grow, and extend her expertise in public health nutrition field by joining academia.
Statement of the Problem: Lifestyle behaviors usually originate during adolescence. Overweight and Obesity among adolescents is a major public health concern due to its negative impacts on their health and wellbeing. Clustering of different lifestyle behaviors among adolescents may coexist, thereby causing increased overweight and obesity. The objective of this study was to derive various patterns of lifestyle behaviours; including dietary, physical activity, screen time, sleep, substance abuse and mental health among healthy adolescents using the statistical technique of factor analysis.
Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on 2845 school going adolescents including both gender, aged 10 to 19 years. Different lifestyle behaviors of participants were collected through questionnaire. Different lifestyle behaviors patterns were identified from 31-items list using the principal component factor analysis with an eigen value >1.50 criterion and using the varimax rotation to determine the final number of factors. The behaviors with a factor loading of >0.30 were considered most informative in describing that factor. Significance level was set at p-value < 0.05, and all statistical analyses were performed using the STATA software version 11.1.
Findings: Five life style patterns were identified.
•The factor 1 was characterized by sedentary behaviors (a- screen time included watching television, playing computer or video games, social networking on internet, internet surfing and b- leisure activities included sitting listening to music and Sitting and talking on the phone).
•The factor 2 was characterized by psychological behaviors (sadness, loneliness, worriedness, suicidal ideation, self-satisfaction) and sleep behavior (trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night) Factor 1 and 2 had higher (≥ 5) loadings while remaining three factors were those who had 3 loadings.
•The factor 3 was identified by hygiene behavior (sanitation and personal hygiene).
•The factor 4 was characterized by leisure activities behavior (sitting/ driving in a car etc).
• The factor 5 was identified by sleep behavior (trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night).
Conclusion: This study identifies clustering of different unhealthy lifestyle patterns among adolescents. Also sedentary behaviors were more among boys and psychological behaviors were more among girls
16:00-17:30 Poster Session
Agriculture syndicate, Erbil-Iraq
Title: Growth, yield, yield components and quality oil of sunflower (flame) variety affected by organic, mineral nitrogen and raw spacing
Time : 16:20-16:40
Shatha has completed her bachlore in crop production (field crops) at the age of 24 years from Salahaddin University and she is the member in agriculture syndicate in Erbil -Iraq
This study was concluded at experimental field – College ofAgriculture/University of Salahaddin-Erbil, during spring season (2016) in order to Growth, yield, yield components and quality oil of sunflower (flame) variety affected by organic, mineral nitrogen and raw spacing . the experiment carried out in accordance with using split plot design within a complete random block design (RCBD) with three replicates, as was the use of independent comparisons and trend analysis to test the traits in addition to the polynomial Duncan test. Where the distances agriculture workers occupied the main plots (50 and 70 cm) between the lines, while the included sub plots nitrogen fertilization factor which consisted of seven levels, a three organic fertilizer levels (10, 15 and 20 ton / ha) and three mineral fertilizer levels (60, 90 and 120 kg N / ha) In addition to the treatment comparison. The results can be summarized as follows:
- Significant effect of interaction between row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer occurred in same traits, the highest of seed yield (3.89 ton/ha) , oil yield (1.67 ton/ha) , straw yield (11.77 ton/ha) and biological yield (15.66 ton/ha), But oleic acid reached (44.07%) was obtained from the interaction between the distance (50 cm) and rate of (20 ton/ha) organic fertilizer.
- The factorial treatment cultured in (70 cm) row spacing and the rate of (20 ton/ha) of organic fertilizer gave the highest plant height (171.23 cm), plant yield (88.17 gm/plant), 100 seed weight (6.51 gm), But the lowest palmatic acid (6.62%) was obtained from the same row spacing and nitrogen control treatment (0 kg N/ha).
- The highest harvest index (26.89%) , oil content (45.0%) and lowest stearic acid (3.03%) were obtained from the interaction between (50 cm)and nitrogen control treatment (0 kg N/ha).
- The interaction effect occurred between row spacing (70 cm) and rate of (90 kg N/ha) mineral fertilizer gave the highest lenoleic acid (48.47%) and leaves number (32.33 leaf/plant).
- When orthogonal contrast conducting ,fertilizer treatment excelled on non- fertilized treatment in all traits except oil content and oleic acid. organic fertilizer excelled on mineral fertilizer in some traits like (plant height , head diameter , plant yield , seed yield , straw yield , biological yield , and oleic acid), but mineral fertilizer excelled in these traits (leave number, harvest index and lenoleic acid).
- The relationship between organic manure levels and traits: plant height and plant yield , seed yield , palmatic and oleic acid - quadratic as well as the relationship between mineral fertilizer levels and trait linoleic acid- quadratic Also, while the mineral fertilizer relationship with traits: the number of leaves and harvest index - linear.
Dr. Khudhur is working as an Assistant Professor at the University of Salahaddin, Iraq
Food is any substance eaten by humans or drink, and be addressed through the mouth, and then digest it turns into simple materials, not including medication or substance, whether it's natural or artificial, there is another definition of food which is any material that provide the body with important nutrients energy and growth, and food is a key element on which the existence of man, and it was the most important causes of conflict between peoples to maintain their viability.
Nutrition: is the way the body gets the food, or supply the body with important nutrients process, causing malnutrition, whether in dealing with a shortage of items or excessive eating to an imbalance in the functions of the body, causing various diseases. Benefits of food