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3rd International Conference on Food Chemistry & Nutrition, will be organized around the theme “Shaping the Future of Food Quality, Health & Safety”
Food Chemistry 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Food Chemistry 2018
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Food chemistry is the science that deals with the chemical composition and properties of food and the chemical changes it undergoes. Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. The data are presented in food composition databases (FCDBs). Knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is the first essential in dietary treatment of disease or in any quantitative study of human nutrition.
- Track 1-1Cereals and Cereal Products
- Track 1-2Legumes and Oilseeds
- Track 1-3Fruits and Vegetables
- Track 1-4Meat, Fish and Poultry Products
- Track 1-5Milk and Dairy Products
Food chemistry also includes the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. An example of enhancing a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut red apples using lemon juice or other acidulated water.
- Track 2-1Proteins
- Track 2-2Lipids
- Track 2-3Carbohydrates
- Track 2-4Vitamins
- Track 2-5Flavor and Color Compounds
- Track 2-6Water and Minerals
- Track 2-7Food Additives
- Track 2-8Chemical Preservatives
- Track 2-9Antioxidants
- Track 2-10Contaminants
Hydrocolloids or gums are a diverse group of long chain polymers characterized by their property of forming viscous dispersions and/or gels when dispersed in water. These materials were first found in exudates from trees or bushes, extracts from plants or seaweeds, flours from seeds or grains, gummy slimes from fermentation processes, and many other natural products. Occurrence of a large number of hydroxyl groups noticeably increases their affinity for binding water molecules rendering them hydrophilic compounds. Further, they produce a dispersion, which is intermediate between a true solution and a suspension, and exhibits the properties of a colloid. Hydrocolloids have a wide array of functional properties in foods including; thickening, gelling, emulsifying, stabilization, coating and etc. Hydrocolloids have a profound impact on food properties when used at levels ranging from a few parts per million for carrageenan in heat-treated dairy products to high levels of acacia gum, starch or gelatin in jelly confectionery. The primary reason behind the ample use of hydrocolloids in foods is their ability to modify the rheology of food systems. This includes two basic properties of food systems that is, flow behavior (viscosity) and mechanical solid property (texture). The modification of texture and/or viscosity of food systems helps modify its sensory properties, therefore hydrocolloids are used as significant food additives to perform specific purposes. It is evident that several hydrocolloids belong to the category of permitted food additive in many countries throughout the world. Various food formulations such as soups, gravies, salad dressings, sauces and toppings use hydrocolloids as additives to achieve the preferred viscosity and mouth feel. They are also used in many food products like icecreams, jams, jellies, gelled desserts, cakes and candies, to create the desired texture. In addition to the functional attributes, future acceptance and, possibly, positive endorsement may derive from the recognition that fibers contribute many physiological benefits to the natural function and well-being of the body.
Many reactions can alter food quality or safety. Each reaction class can involve different reactants or substrates depending on the specific food and the particular conditions for handling, processing, or storage. They are treated as reaction classes because the general nature of the substrates or reactants is similar for all foods. Thus, nonenzymic browning involves reaction of carbonyl compounds, which can arise from existing reducing sugars or from diverse reactions, such as oxidation of ascorbic acid, hydrolysis of starch, or oxidation of lipids. Oxidation may involve lipids, proteins, vitamins, or pigments, and more specifically, oxidation of lipids may involve triacylglycerol in one food or phospholipids in another.
Food preservation is to prevent the growth of microorganisms as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food involve more than one food preservation method. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling, sugaring and sealing within an airtight jar. Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint, when compared to modern methods. Some methods of food preservation are known to create carcinogens. Fermented meat is carcinogenic to humans. Damage or contamination by micro-organisms, air, moisture and toxins are protected by packaging, product spilling or leaking. Nutrition are prevented by packaging, ingredients and sell-by dates are important to the consumer and grocery stores as well. Food Packaging has been playing such an important role in the preservation and marketability of a product, many companies are seeking a contract packaging service to help them obtain the best quality packaging available. A co-manufacturer benefits by cost, speed, quality and innovation.
Food adulteration is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet federal or state standards. Adulteration is an addition of another substance to a food item in order to increase the quantity of the food item in raw form or prepared form, which may result in the loss of actual quality of food item. These substances may be other available food items or non-food items. Among meat and meat products some of the items used to adulterate are water or ice, carcasses, or carcasses of animals other than the animal meant to be consumed. It not only includes the intentional addition or substitution of the substances but biological and chemical contamination during the period of growth, storage, processing, transport and distribution of the food products, is also responsible for the lowering or degradation of the quality of food products. Adulterants are those substances which are used for making the food products unsafe for human consumption. Under the previous food laws any food product with lowered or degraded quality used to be defined as adulterated food but under the new laws (FSS Act, 2006), the word adulterated food has been termed as Substandard Food, Unsafe Food or Food containing the extraneous matter.
It is essential to reiterate that safety is the first requisite of any food. In a broad sense, this means a food must be free of any harmful chemical or microbial contaminant at the time of its consumption. For operational purposes this definition takes on a more applied form. In the canning industry, commercial sterility as applied to low-acid foods means the absence of viable spores of Clostridium botulinum. This in turn can be translated into a specific set of heating conditions for a specific product in a specific package. Given these heating requirements, one can then select specific time-temperature conditions that will optimize retention of quality attributes. Similarly, in a product such as peanut butter, operational safety can be regarded primarily as the absence of aflatoxins—carcinogenic substances produced by certain species of molds. Steps taken to prevent growth of the mold in question may or may not interfere with retention of some other quality attribute; nevertheless, conditions producing a safe product must be employed.
- Track 7-1U.S. Food Law
- Track 7-2Canadian Food Laws
- Track 7-3European Union (EU) Food Laws
- Track 7-4International Food Law
Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems are often quite distinct from those required for young people. The special nutrition problems of the aged are intensively researched and tested, especially as the elderly become a larger percentage of the population. Many chronic diseases and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged, and it is also widely known that many elderly people use foods and nutrients well above the recommended daily allowance, which can be detrimental to optimal health. Functional foods deliver additional or enhanced benefits over and above their basic nutritional value. Some functional foods are generated around a particular functional ingredient, for example foods containing probiotics, prebiotics and sterols. Other functional foods or drinks can be foods fortified with a nutrient that would not usually be present to any great extent. Functional foods and drinks may provide benefits in health terms, but should not be seen as an alternative to a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. Functional foods are fortified or enriched during processing and then marketed as providing some benefit to consumers. Sometimes, additional complementary nutrients are added, such as vitamin D to milk. Health Canada defines functional foods as “ordinary food that has components or ingredients added to give it a specific medical or physiological benefit, other than a purely nutritional effect.” In Japan, all functional foods must meet three established requirements: foods should be present in their naturally occurring form, rather than a capsule, tablet, or powder; consumed in the diet as often as daily; and should regulate a biological process in hopes of preventing or controlling disease.
Nutritional disorders can happen just due to less intake of proper food or certain nutrients or by an incapacity of the body to absorb and utilize nutrients, or by overconsumption of different types of foods”. Nutritional disorders can be particularly serious in any age of an individual, since they interfere with growth and development, and may predispose to many health problems, such as infections and chronic diseases. A metabolic disorder occurs when the metabolism process fails and allows the body to have either too much or too little of the essential substances needed to stay healthy. Our bodies are very sensitive to errors in metabolic activity. The body must have amino acids and many different types of proteins to perform all of its metabolic functions. For example, the brain and other parts of the body need calcium, potassium and sodium to generate electrical impulses, and lipids (fats and oils) to maintain a healthy nervous system.
- Track 9-1Vitamins, antioxidant and mineral deficiency disorder
- Track 9-2Nutritional approaches to combating non-communicable diseases
- Track 9-3Lifestyle related disorders
- Track 9-4Mental disorders
- Track 9-5Malnutrition and associated disorders
- Track 9-6Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
- Track 9-7Food borne allergy and intolerance
- Track 9-8Obesity, diabetes and other metabolic syndrome
- Track 9-9Food intake and energy expenditure
Nutraceuticals are the pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrients. In the US, nutraceuticals do not exist as a regulatory category; they are regulated as dietary supplements and food additives by the FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. A market research report produced in 2012 projected that the worldwide nutraceuticals market would reach US$250 billion by 2018, defining that market as Dietary Supplements, and Functional Foods & Beverages. A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients derived from food products that are concentrated in liquid or capsule form. In the US, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defined the term: A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that contains a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet. The dietary ingredients in these products may include: vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates, and may be found in many forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids, or powders.
Food waste that is sent to landfill doesn’t harmlessly breakdown. It has a big impact on the environment as it rots and releases methane – a harmful greenhouse gas that is 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. However, it’s not all bad news as many of us will be able to recycle our food waste. Food waste – such as fruit & veg peelings, egg shells and used teabags – can be turned into something useful. When recycled, it’s taken to a processing facility where it is turned into electricity to power your local community. Food waste can be recycled into useful resources with organics recycling. There are two main processes used to recycle food waste; In-vessel composting (IVC) and Anaerobic digestion (AD).
Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food science, from how food is grown to how it is packaged. Companies are developing nanomaterials that will make a difference not only in the taste of food, but also in food safety, and the health benefits that food delivers. Clay nanocomposites are being used to provide an impermeable barrier to gasses such as oxygen or carbon dioxide in lightweight bottles, cartons and packaging films. Storage bins are being produced with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any material that was previously stored in the bins, minimizing health risks from harmful bacteria.